Detailed typography – quality to the last detail
We take it seriously. It’s precisely in foreign language typesetting that language idiosyncrasies are extremely important for both understanding and the layout.
It’s not only the correct use of punctuation that’s important for a harmonious, overall impression, but also observance of hyphenation rules, the use of hyphens, non‐breaking spaces, and the correct written use of units of measurement, symbols and punctuation.
Punctuation is used to help make the written language comprehensible, establish links between words, or separate them, and construct sentences. Symbols encompass all signs that are not letters or figures. We handle both with due care and expertise.
Well‐known German orthographic punctuation:
- Quotation marks („ “ » «)
- Apostrophe (’)
- Ellipsis (…)
- Exclamation mark (! )
- Hyphen or dash (-)
- Question mark (? )
- Dash (en dash) ( – )
- Colon (: )
- Comma (,)
- Parentheses and brackets ( [ ] ( ) )
- Full stop (. )
- Forward stroke/slash (/)
- Semi‐colon (;)
Typesetting and exclamation signs
German sentence structure or expression marks:
- Question mark ( ? )
- Exclamation mark ( ! )
- Quotation marks ( „ “ » « )
Symbols and punctuation
Well‐known punctuation and special characters:
- At symbol ( @ )
- And sign ( & )
- Asterisk ( * )
- Paragraph symbol ( § )
- Currency symbol ( €, ¥, £ )
- Mathematical symbol ( + – = × ÷ )
- Apostrophe ( ’ )
An apostrophe is a comma‐shaped mark to replace letters and is used, for example, to denote the genitive of a name. It is used within a word without spaces and looks like a 9.
- Em quad
An em is of variable size governed by the font. It is as wide as the font is high.
- Em dash
An em dash ( — ) is a line the length of an em. In micro‐typography, this is subdivided into different lengths, distinguishing between an en dash ( – ) and hyphen (-).
- En dash (dash)
A dash is used to insert text. A space always comes before and after it. For example: You’re right – but I see things differently.
In German, a hyphen, also called dash, indicates that a word part has been left out in compound nouns or lists. For example: Vorder‐ und Rückseite (front and back)
Quotation marks are used to indicate speech or quotations. They are also used when naming titles (e.g. book titles, cinema films, etc.), making ironic statements, or for proper names. If more quotation marks are needed within speech marks, single inverted commas are used.
Forms of quotation marks
In German, there are generally two types of quotation marks used. On the one hand, there are typographic quotation marks that look like a 99 („) and a 66 (“); on the other hand, German guillemets (»…«) are occasionally used. What can often be seen in German digital texts are the straight quotation marks familiar from typewriting (“), which aren’t correct from a typographical point of view.
- Typographical quotation marks
„techtrans“ (below/above, first 99, then 66; no spaces)
- Single quotation marks
‚techtrans‘ (below/above, first 9, then 6; no spaces)
- German guillemets
»techtrans« (arrows pointing inwards; no spaces)
- Single German guillemets
›techtrans‹ (arrows pointing inwards; no spaces)